In this articles, you will learn the four traditional functions of management and also the management function propounded by HENRI FAYOL AND LUTHER GULLICK.
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
The four traditional functions of management are planning, organizing, coordination, and controlling.
- Planning: This is the first traditional function of management. Planning involves looking ahead and mapping out the future course of action to be followed. It also helps to decide what, how, when, and where to do it. Planning helps to allocate resources and reduces wastage as well. Basically, all managers have to plan ahead so that all stated goals and objectives of the organization can be achieved. Without planning, no real action can take place.
- Organizing: This function typically follows planning and reflects how the organization tries to accomplish its goals and objectives. Organizing involves bringing together both human and material resources to achieve the intended plan successfully. It also involves establishing the flow of authority and communication between positions and levels within the organization. All managers perform this function in their respective organizations.
- Coordinating: Coordinating is the integration of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. There must be proper coordination throughout the organization in order to achieve the intended goals and objectives.
- Controlling: This last function of management involves measuring and correcting all the activities that do not conform to the expected standard and with the plan adopted. This function also requires managers to be able to identify any deviation from successful accomplishment and to provide a corrective course of action.
Functions of management by HENRI FAYOL and LUTHER GULLICK.
Henri Fayol identified five functions of management namely planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. According to him, these functions are universal and every manager irrespective of his position performed these functions in their daily activities.
The five functions of management propounded by Henri Fayol are briefly explained below:
- Planning: Managers must plan for future conditions, develop strategic objectives and secure the achievement of future goals.
- Organizing: Managers must organize the workforce in an efficient manner and align the activities of the organization.
- Commanding: Managers must supervise subordinates in their daily activities and influence and persuade the toward company goals.
- Coordinating: Managers must harmonize the procedures and activities performed by the company. That is, every activity of each organizational unit should complement and enrich the work of another.
- Controlling: Managers must observe and correct any deviations resulting from plan adopted and take necessary measures to correct such deviations so that the company policies and objectives are achieved.
The American Luther Gullick and Brit Lyndanll expanded Fayols list to seven functions of management.
- Planning: To succeed, there must be a plan of action. Planning is the first step of the management function. It involves the determinants of what, how, where, and when to be done. It helps managers to anticipate problems before they actually occur.
- Organizing: This function of management involves bringing together all resources to attain organizational goals and objectives. A manager must know what the business needs to thrive and succeed and be made available through proper organizing.
- Staffing: This function involves seeking a number of qualified staff with required skill and knowledge to perform the available job positions within the organization. Staffing also involves promotions, transfers, and training of employees for better performance.
- Directing: This includes guiding and supervising the employees working in the organization towards higher productivity and profitability.
- Coordinating: This means to integrate the effort of group members so as to provide unity of action to achieve common goals of the organization.
- Reporting: This function involves daily follow-up of activities with the help of reports which are submitted by subordinates to their respective supervisors.
- Budgeting: This function means estimating the future needs covering all the activities of an enterprise for a definite period of time. A budget is prepared for each department so that all expenses can be controlled to the barest minimum.
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT.