Definition of Management
What you’ll learn.
- Definition of management
- Meaning of management by different authors, and different basis for their definition
- The nature and features of management.
What do you understand by management?
In simple words, management means using the available resources in the best possible manner for the purpose of achieving a stated goal and objective of an organization. In a broader sense, Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the effort of members towards achieving the stated goals and objectives of the organization by using available resources efficiently and effectively.
Management has been defined by different scholars, experts, and authors in various ways. Some of those definitions are mentioned below:
- In the words of MARY PARKER FOLLET, “Management is the art of getting things done through others.”
- According to PETER DRUCKER, “Management is a multi-purpose organ that manages business, managers, workers, and work.”
- In the words of FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR, “Management is an art of knowing what to do when to do, and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way.”
- According to THEO HAIMANN, and WILLIAMS SCOT, “Management is a social and technical process which utilizes resources, influence human action and facilitates changes in order to accomplish organizational goals.”
- According to DONALD COUGH, “Management is the art and science of decision making and leadership.”
Now, Let’s define management based on;
(V) Science, and
- Process: Management as a process refers to a series of interrelated functions in which it creates, operates and directs the goals of the organization through systematic, coordinated, and cooperative human efforts.
- Discipline: Management as a discipline refers to that branch of knowledge which is connected to the study of principles and practices of basic administration.
- Group: Management as a group refers to all people which involves in ensuring that the goals and objectives of an enterprise are achieved through coordinated efforts.
- Profession: Management as a profession simply refers to an individual who knows the principles and practices of an administration for the efficient and effective running of an enterprise.
- Science: Management as a science refers to a system of knowledge that explains a phenomenon through the uses of scientific techniques in arriving at a decision. It also establishes the cause-effect relationship between two or more variables and underlines the principles of governing their relationship.
- Art: Management as art means the practical knowledge and skills of human in arriving at desired results. That is, managers utilize their personal skills and knowledge in the daily running of their respective organizations.
Natures and Features of Management
The natures and features of management are highlighted as follows:
- Management integrates human and material resources in achieving organizational goals.
- Management is an on-going process i.e. it deals with problems and issues as they arise and takes appropriate measures to solve them.
- Management involves a group of people in which they utilize their skills and efforts towards achieving the pre-determined goals of an enterprise.
- Management involves decision-making at all levels of an organization that requires managerial skills and knowledge in a given situation.
- Management is pervasive i.e. it is needed in all types of an organization be it business, political, religious, institutions, schools, hospitals, military, and non-profit making organizations.
- Management follows a set of principles to solve problems as they occur in the organization.
- Management is flexible or dynamic in nature i.e. management can change or adapt according to the changing circumstances in which an organization exists.
- Management is a goal-oriented because it ensures that an enterprise maximizes its resources by producing quality products or services for the satisfaction of end-users at a low cost.
- Management involves using a professional approach to getting things done through others.
- Management is intangible i.e. it cannot be seen nor touched but it can be felt and reached by its results.
- Management is a multi-disciplinary field because it involves knowledge from various disciplines such as economics, research, psychology, statistics, mathematics, etc.
- Management is both an art and a science.